According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Salvadorans have overtaken Puerto Ricans as the largest group of Hispanics on Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk counties). Salvadorans now represent 22.5 percent of all Hispanics in the region, up from 15 percent in 2000, while Puerto Ricans represent 20 percent of all Hispanics, down from 26.5 percent in 2000. An examination of 2010 census data also shows the following information:
- While Salvadorans have grown to 24.2 percent of all Hispanics in Nassau county from 18 percent in 2000, they are still second to Puerto Ricans in terms of their percentage of the Hispanic population in Suffolk, where they represent 21.2 percent of Hispanics compared to 23.8 percent of Hispanics who are of Puerto Rican descent.
- Overall, Central Americans (excluding those from Mexico) make up the largest group of Hispanics on Long Island at 33.3 percent, up from 21.5 percent in 2000 when Puerto Ricans were the largest group, at 26.5 percent.
- Other groups that grew as a percentage of all Hispanics included Mexicans, who went from 4.8 percent to 5.9 percent of the total between 2000 and 2010, Dominicans who went from 7.5 percent to 9.5 percent, and South Americans, who went from 14.2 percent to 18.9 percent. Individual countries of origin that now make up 3 percent or more of total Hispanics on Long Island include Peruvians (3.4 percent), Guatemalans (4.3 percent), Hondurans (4.7 percent), Mexicans (5.9 percent), Ecuadorians (6.1 percent), Columbians (6.1 percent).
- Aside from the broad catch-all category of “other,” which declined sharply between 2000 and 2010, Cubans were the only country of origin group of Hispanics that lost as a percentage of Long Island’s population, going from 2.7 percent of the total to 2.2 percent.
- Long Island Hispanic population differs substantially from New York state and the rest of the nation in terms of countries of origin. While Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans make up more than half of all Long Island Hispanics, statewide Dominicans make up a far larger portion of Hispanics than do those from El Salvador. Statewide Puerto Ricans are the largest group of Hispanics at 31.3 percent, but this is down from 36.6 percent in 2000, due mostly to the growth in the Dominican and Mexican populations. Dominicans went from 15.9 percent of all Hispanics statewide in 2000 to 19.7 percent, while Mexicans grew from 9.1 to 13.4 percent.
- Nationwide Mexicans are by far the largest Hispanic group, growing from 58.5 percent in 2000 to 64.5 percent in the 2005-2009 period (nationwide numbers for 2010 have not been released yet by the U.S. Census Bureau). In fact, the growth of the Mexican Hispanic population was so rapid that the growth of most of the other Hispanic groups nationwide was subdued in terms of percentage growth. For example, while Puerto Ricans represent the second largest group of Hispanics nationwide at 9.2 percent for the 2005-2009 period, this is actually a decline since 2000 when they constituted 9.6 percent of the Hispanic population. This percentage decline occurred even though the Puerto Rican population is estimated to have grown from 3.4 million to 4.2 million between 2000 and 2005-2009.
- The only other groups to constitute more than 3 percent of the total Hispanic population in the U.S. are Cubans, who remained at 3.5 percent of the total between 2000 and 2005-2009 and Salvadorans, who went from 1.9 percent of total to 3.2 percent. Dominicans represent 2.7 percent of total Hispanics.